Contents

  1. Chapter 1 Earth System Science and Environmental Geology

    1. 1.1 The Earth in Space

    2. 1.2 Earth System Science

    3. 1.3 Environmental Geology

    4. Chapter 1 Summary and Questions for Review

  2. Chapter 2 Review of Physical Geology

    1. 2.1 Minerals 

    2. 2.2 Rocks

    3. 2.3 Earth’s Interior

    4. 2.4 Plate Tectonics

    5. 2.5 Geosphere Earth Systems

    6. Chapter 2 Summary and Questions for Review

  3. Chapter 3 Climate Changes in Earth’s Past

    1. 3.1 Changes in Solar Output and in the Earth’s Atmosphere

    2. 3.2 Plate Tectonics and Climate Change

    3. 3.3 Volcanism and Climate Change

    4. 3.4 Earth’s Orbital Fluctuations and Climate Change

    5. 3.5 Ocean Currents and Climate Change

    6. 3.6 Extraterrestrial Impacts and Climate Change

    7. Chapter 3 Summary and Questions for Review

  4. Chapter 4 Glaciation

    1. 4.1 Glacial Periods in Earth’s History

    2. 4.2 How Glaciers Work

    3. 4.3 Glacial Erosion

    4. 4.4 Glacial Deposits

    5. 4.5 Glaciers and Climate Change, Glaciers and Earth Systems

    6. Chapter 4 Summary and Questions for Review

  5. Chapter 5 Mass Wasting

    1. 5.1 Factors that Control Slope Stability

    2. 5.2 Classification of Mass Wasting 

    3. 5.3 Mitigating the Effects of Mass Wasting

    4. 5.4 Mass Wasting and Earth Systems

    5. Chapter 5 Summary and Questions for Review

  6. Chapter 6 Earthquakes

    1. 6.1 What is an Earthquake?

    2. 6.2 Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics

    3. 6.3 Measuring Earthquakes

    4. 6.4 The Impacts of Earthquakes

    5. 6.5 Forecasting Earthquakes and Minimizing Damage and Casualties

    6. Chapter 6 Summary and Questions for Review

  7. Chapter 7 Volcanism

    1. 7.1 Plate Tectonic Settings of Volcanism

    2. 7.2 Magma Composition and Eruption Style

    3. 7.3 Types of Volcanism

    4. 7.4 Volcanic Hazards

    5. 7.5 Monitoring Volcanoes and Predicting Eruptions

    6. 7.6 Effects of Volcanic Eruptions on Humans and on Earth Systems

    7. Chapter 7 Summary and Questions for Review

  8. Chapter 8 Geological Resources

    1. 8.1 Metal Deposits

    2. 8.2 Mining and Ore Processing 

    3. 8.3 Industrial Minerals 

    4. 8.4 Fossil Fuels

    5. 8.5 The Implications of Resource Extraction for the Climate and Earth Systems

    6. Chapter 8 Summary and Questions for Review

  9. Chapter 9 Energy Resources

    1. 9.1 Solar and Wind

    2. 9.2 Hydro

    3. 9.3 Wave and Tidal Energy

    4. 9.4 Geothermal and Geo-Exchange

    5. 9.5 Nuclear Energy

    6. 9.6 Our Energy Future

    7. Chapter 9 Summary and Questions for Review

  10. Chapter 10 Weathering, Soil, and Clay Minerals

    1. 10.1 Mechanical Weathering

    2. 10.2 Chemical Weathering

    3. 10.3 Soil Formation

    4. 10.4 The Soils of Canada

    5. 10.5 Clay Minerals

    6. Chapter 10 Summary and Questions for Review

  11. Chapter 11 Water Resources

    1. 11.1 The Hydrologic Cycle

    2. 11.2 Anthropogenic Effects on Water Quality

    3. 11.3 Natural Effects on Water Quality

    4. 11.4 Groundwater

    5. 11.5 Streams and Stream Flow

    6. Chapter 11 Summary and Questions for Review

  12. Chapter 12 Karst and Caves

    1. 12.1 Karst Landscapes and Systems

    2. 12.2 Karst Landscapes, Landforms, and Surface Features

    3. 12.3   Karst Hydrogeology

    4. 12.4 Karst Cave Features, Cave Contents, and Subterranean Life

    5. 12.5 Origin and Genesis of Caves

    6. 12.6 Human Interactions with Karst and Caves

    7. Chapter 12 Summary and Questions for Review

  13. Chapter 13 Flooding

    1. 13.1 Factors that Control Stream Discharge and Flooding

    2. 13.2 Examples of Flooding Events

    3. 13.3 Managing Floods and Limiting Flood Damage

    4. 13.4 Flooding and Earth Systems

    5. Chapter 13 Summary and Questions for Review

  14. Chapter 14 Waste Disposal

    1. 14.1 The Waste Stream

    2. 14.2 Dumps and Landfills

    3. 14.3 Leachate and Landfill Gas

    4. 14.4 Waste to Energy

    5. 14.5 Liquid Wastes 

    6. Chapter 14 Summary and Questions for Review

  15. Chapter 15 Geological Implications of Climate Change

    1. 15.1 Increasing Temperatures

    2. 15.2 Melting Glacial Ice and Permafrost

    3. 15.3 Extreme Weather Events

    4. 15.4 Climate Change and Earth Systems

    5. 15.5 Taking Climate Action

    6. Chapter 15 Summary and Questions for Review

  16. Appendix 1 Answers to Chapter Review Questions

  17. Appendix 2 Answers to exercises

  18. Versioning History